One of the best features of a pair of modern headphones is the noise canceling technology, which removes ambient noise so you can fully immerse yourself in music. But according to a new study, the brain itself has quite a special noise reduction ability.
Research done by Duke University scientists in the United States, published in the journal Nature, proves that even the tiny brains of mice have amazingly relevant noise reduction capabilities. to a system of predictive hearing feedback, even before noise.
Richard Mooney, a professor of neurology at Duke, said: “The special thing about this noise elimination process is that the brain has learned to turn off the reaction to predictable noise. The function to turn off these reactions is developed over time and experience “.
The sounds we create are often filtered out so we can hear more important sounds.
To learn about how this integrated noise management system works, the team built a “virtual reality” system for mice. First, they train mice to be familiar with a specific sound whenever they start moving. The mouse’s brain begins to wait for that sound to appear whenever they walk.
The researchers tracked the communication between the region that manages brain movement and the area of hearing feedback in mice, they discovered that specific signals were sent to eliminate sound. (created in this test).
When the mouse hears the noise – the familiar sound penetrates its ears – but the sound is ignored by the brain by receiving a filtered signal. The noise has been filtered out ahead of time so that the mouse can hear more important sounds.
Other experiments also show that, not only in mice, similar noise reduction abilities also occur in other animals, including humans. We obviously know this possibility, because we can easily distinguish the sound of our own footsteps from the whole other nearby sounds.
The sounds we create are often filtered out so that we can hear more important sounds, such as sounds that can signal danger. And of course, if this ability is limited to humans, then surely we will encounter many difficulties in natural life that are always surrounded by countless noisy noises.
Preparing vaccines based on … spider silk
A new study has shown that from spider silk, people can develop a method to help get the vaccine straight to the white blood cells in the body, thereby strengthening the immune system against cancer. and serious infections …
Immunotherapy for the treatment of diseases
Immunotherapy is a type of therapy that is widely used in the treatment of cancers. This treatment aims to boost the body’s immune system against tumors. Although the drugs used are inhibitors of control points in cancer pathogenesis or cell cultures, immune therapy primarily affects T lymphocytes.
Our body’s immune system consists mainly of two types of white blood cells, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. The first type is active in many types of infections, while the latter type has to be activated to fight cancer. letter or more serious infections, such as tuberculosis. However, T lymphocytes are more difficult to activate than B lymphocytes and therefore to activate them, a type of peptide must be injected into the body, but this substance is often degraded before reaching its destination. desired impact.
Spider silk is an inspiration for a new study that created a vaccine that has a better effect on vaccination.
And special materials from spider silk
Scientists have now created microcapsules containing vaccines made from a different material, synthetic spider silk. Research by GS. Carole Bourquin – expert on anti-cancer immunotherapy at the University of Geneva (Switzerland) said that to develop effective immunotherapy against cancer, it is necessary to create a significant response in T lymphocytes. As current vaccines have only limited effects on T lymphocytes, the development of other immunization methods to overcome this problem is very important.
GS. Bourquin and her team used synthetic biopolymer (biopolymer) derived from spider silk. Spider silk is a particularly elastic and firm material. In fact, scientists think this material is five times stronger than steel when they are the same size. A scientist in the research group is Thomas Scheibel – expert on spider silk (recombinant spider silk eADF4 – C16) at Bayreuth University, Germany, said they have created this special type of silk in the laboratory. to be able to insert an active vaccine peptide into the living body. The carrier subtypes made of this spider silk are fused with peptides with antigenic activity from egg white albumin, with or without the cleavable cathepsin peptide. These particles are captured by dendritic cells and successfully activate toxic T lymphocytes without causing any signs of immune toxicity or non-specific immunostimulatory activity. When injected under the skin, these particles are captured by dendritic cells and accumulate in lymph nodes – the site of the immune response. These subtypes contain a type of cathepsin bridge that can cleave and activate a strong proliferation (antigen specific) of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on the living organism, even without it. face of adjuvant.
This study has demonstrated the efficacy of a new protein-derived immunization, in which small particles made of spider silk act as carriers and integrate an antigen-active peptide. On the other hand, this new immunization strategy is very stable, easy to produce again. The scientists also added other advantages of using this synthetic spider biopolymer, which is that they have high heat resistance up to 1000C, so it is very convenient for storage. In addition, microparticle types made from this material could theoretically allow researchers to develop vaccines that are transferred without the need for any adjuvant. other.
Scientists acknowledge that a possible limitation of the above method is in the size of micro-particles. Therefore, subsequent studies need to determine whether greater antigens can be integrated into the microcapsules made from this material.